220.127.116.11 Measuring Devices
Measuring tools are the most essential things in making a pattern. The key to success in garment construction lies in taking accurate measurements of the subject and by using the appropriate tool for pattern making (Aldrich 2002, 2004, 2009; Beazley and Bond 2004).
1. Measuring tape: It is indispensable for taking body measurements. It is 152 cm or 60″ long with measurements on both sides. Its one end is made of metal having 3″ length and the other is made of the same metal having 1/2″ length. The side with the 1/2″ length is used for measuring a circular area, while the side with 3″ length is used for a vertical area.
2. CPG measuring tape: This is used for taking measurements for a coat. Three measurements, that is, chest, shoulder, and depth of side can be taken at a time. Apart from these, over shoulder and under shoulder measurements can be recorded with this tape.
3. Leg measuring tape: It is a tape used for measuring the inner part of the leg. It is made of wood in the shape of a crescent and a measuring tape is fixed at the center of the circle. The circle is entrapped with the leg to measure the inner portion of the leg by tape.
4. Measuring stand: This stand is used to measure long garments such as long overcoats, frocks or gowns, as well as flare of the garment. In this stand, a rod of aluminum is fitted on the stand. The rod has a graduated scale, which gives the vertical measurement.
5. Ruler: It is the best device for taking long straight measurements. It is mostly used for checking grain lines and marking hems.
18.104.22.168 Drafting Devices
Drafting equipment is used for making paper patterns. This is the second stage of pattern making. Using the measurements taken, the drafting is carried out according to the design of a garment. The following drafting equipment is used:
1. L-scale: It is called a triscale or L-scale and is made of wood or steel. The L-scale has one arm, which measures 12″ and the other arm is 24″. It is used for drafting on brown paper to draw perpendicular lines.
2. Leg shaper: It is made of wood or plastic. Either 24″ or 36″ lengths are available. It is used to measure and shape the interior part of the leg.
3. Tailor’s art curve: It is made of plastic or wood. This is used to draw curves in the drafting.
4. French curve: This is made of transparent plastic. It helps in marking shapes of the neck, depth of sides and bottom of the garments.
5. Compass: It is mainly used for making a curve for umbrella cloth. 6. Drafting table: It is a wooden table of 3′ height, 4′ wide and
6′ long. The surface should be smooth and firm.
7. Milton cloth: It is a thick, blue coloured woolen cloth used for drafting. It is mostly used for practicing drafts by students. The surface can be brushed and reused until correct drafting is obtained.
8. Brush: A brush is used on Milton cloth to rub the mistakes while drafting.
9. Brown paper: It is used for drafting by placing on the drafting table. While using brown paper, a grain line should be followed.
10. Pencil: Pencil is used for marking on brown paper.
11. Rubber: It is frequently used for deleting mistakes. Good quality rubber, which does not leave black lines, should be selected.
12. Red and blue pencils: These are used for marking on fold (red line) and grain line (blue arrow).
22.214.171.124 Marking Devices
Marking devices are used for transferring the details of the paper draft to the fabric.
1. Tailor’s chalk: It is made of china clay and is available in different colors. It is used for marking the paper patterns on the cloth. Alterations and construction markings are drawn using tailors’ chalk.
2. Chalk in pencil form: This is used like a pencil and is ideal for marking thin accurate lines. This is used for marking pleats, darts and buttonholes.
3. Tracing wheel: It is used for transferring the pattern markings on fabrics. But for sheer fabrics and loosely woven fabrics, the tracing wheel should be used with care; otherwise, the fabric may get damaged.
4. Dressmaker’s carbon paper: Carbon papers are mostly used for transferring patterns. In embroidery, they are used for tracing designs. They are available in several colors including white.
126.96.36.199 Cutting Devices
Cutting devices/equipment should be selected and used with maximum accuracy. A slight change in cut results in huge fitting problems. These tools must be selected and maintained properly in order to use them effectively.
1. Cutting table and cutting board: A cutting table is 6′ long, 4′ wide and 3′ height. People working in a standing position use the table and people who work sitting use a cutting board. A cutting board should be 6″ height.
2. Shears: These are typically utilized for cutting thick materials and usually 10–15″ in length.
3. Scissors: These are used for cutting ladies’ and children’s garments. They are 7–10″ in length.
4. Paper cutting scissors: These are small scissors available in various sizes and meant for cutting paper.
5. Pinking shears: This cuts the edges in a zigzag manner. It is used for finishing seams and raw edges. It gives a decorative appeal to the raw edges while at the same time avoids unraveling of yarns.
6. Trimming scissors: These are used for carrying out alterations, trimming seams, repairs and cutting thread while sewing.
7. Buttonhole scissors: These are used for making holes for buttons and eyelet holes in garments.